Common Signs of Pipe Corrosion

pipe leaking

Even the highest quality metal piping system will corrode over time due to oxidation. Severe corrosion can lead to burst pipes, resulting in major property damage that costs thousands in repairs. The longer corrosion is left unchecked, the more costly it will be to repair. Keep an eye out for these warning signs and catch pipe corrosion early.

Discolored Water

Water that has been discolored by corrosion may be either obvious straight from the tap or it may leave behind stains in the sink, bathtub, or toilet tank. The most dramatically tinted water will be from the “first-draw” of the day. First-draw water is an important indicator of corrosion due to sitting in the pipes overnight.
Corroded copper pipes will leave blue-green stains, while galvanized iron/steel pipes will dye water the familiar reddish brown of rust.
Look for consistent changes over time. Occasional discoloration unrelated to corrosion can happen after a water supply is turned back on after lengthy disuse or when work is being done on municipal lines.

Strange Taste

Changes to the taste of your tap water are another sign of corrosion. Corroded copper pipes create a metallic taste, while high levels of lead produce a sweet taste. Cold first-draw water that is bitter but goes away later in the day also indicates pope corrosion.


While leaks can have many causes, they are probably the most obvious sign of corrosion. Low water pressure may be caused by a hidden leak. Frequent leaks especially may indicate the presence of “aggressive” corrosive water or that aging metal pipes may be due for replacement.

Frequent Clogs

Pipes that are easily clogged can also mean corrosion. Oxidation and mineral deposits can build up on the inside of pipes, narrowing them.

What can be done?

If you suspect pipe corrosion, consider contacting us at WP Law for more information. We can help to identify corrosion, determine its root cause, and repair any resulting damage.

Midlands Forecast Reference Evapotranspiration (ETo) now available:

A Seven (7) Day Reference Evapotranspiration (ETo) Forecast for South Carolina Midlands is Available

from National Weather Forecast Center, Columbia, SC.

This forecast model acronym is FRET Forecast Reference EvapoTranspiration is based on forecast work 
previously done in the Western US.

The data made available is the daily forecast ETo in Inches/Day for current day plus 6 days going forward 
and weekly totals.

The ETo Forecast data is available for 18 counties in the South Carolina Midlands plus 5 adjacent 
counties in Georgia.

You may reach this website as follows:

Type in your Browser: “Experimental FRET NOAA”

Click on: “Experimental FRET NOAA”

Or use this link:

Click on the day of Interest to see a graphical display of Forecast ETo.

Note that at the bottom of the webpage there is a tabular display of Forecast ETo for 7 days for 18 South 
Carolina counties as well as for 5 adjacent Georgia counties.

Hope you will find this a useful tool.

Choosing the Correct PVC Solvent Cement

How to choose the correct PVC Solvent Cement

Choosing the Correct PVC Solvent Cement
The type of application will determine the proper cement to be used. (Example: PVC, Conduit, Sewer & Drain, DWV, Pressure or Non-Pressure) You will also need to consider the weather conditions, pipe and fitting sizes and expiration date stamped on the can.

Three common types of PVC solvent cement are Hot ‘R Cold, Wet ’R Dry, and General PVC solvent cement

Hot ‘R Cold is formulated for PVC applications with temperatures as low as negative 15 degree Fahrenheit and as high as 110 degree Fahrenheit. Hot ‘R Cold is a clear medium bodied, very fast setting, high strength PVC solvent cement for all classes and schedules of pipe and fittings up to 6” diameter, and Schedule 80 through 4” diameter. It is approved for use with irrigation, sewer, drain, DWV and potable water pressure systems.

Wet ‘R Dry is formulated for applications where conditions are very wet and/or quick pressurization is desired. It was developed for specific needs in irrigation, plumbing or pool and spa. Wet ‘R Dry is an aqua blue medium bodied, extremely fast drying, high strength PVC solvent cement for all classes and schedules of pipe and fittings up to 6” diameter, and Schedule 80 through 4” diameter.

General Purpose PVC Solvent Cement is for all types of PVC plastic applications. It is approved for use with industrial pipe application, irrigation, sewer, drain, waste and vent systems, and potable water systems. General Purpose is a clear or gray, heavy bodied, medium setting, high strength PVC solvent cement for all classes and schedules of pipe and fittings up to 12” diameter including schedule 80. Gray only may be used on non-pressure systems through 18” diameter.
Remember that PVC solvent cements must never be used on PVC systems using or being tested by compressed air or gases.

If you’d like more information about selecting the proper PVC cement for your application, please contact us today. One of our experts will be happy to help.

The Crystal Palace’s Guide to Greenhouse Irrigation

Greenhouse irrigation is nothing new – a little trip one of London’s greatest greenhouses.

The Crystal Palace's Guide to Greenhouse Irrigation

One of the first, and most spectacular, examples of modern greenhouse irrigation was the Crystal Palace which stood in London from 1851 until 1936. This 19-acre glass building was the brainchild of horticulturalist and garden designer, Joseph Paxton. Paxton submitted his design for England’s Great Exhibition held in 1851.

A New Style of Architecture

The Crystal Palace was so called because it was constructed almost entirely of glass panes held in place by metal girders. Many of the architectural methods of strengthening a glass building were invented during the design of the Crystal Palace. These construction details may be common today but to 19th century Londoners they were spectacular.

New Inventions in Greenhouse Irrigation

Just as spectacular were the fountains and cascades that were housed among the lush, exotic exhibits inside and out. When the building was moved in 1854, designers added two massive water towers to each side of the building to provide a gravity-fed water supply.

According to ‘The History of the Drip Irrigation System,’ the modern automated greenhouse irrigation system whereby water is dripped through pipes wasn’t used until 1866, and then met with only limited success. It’s hard to imagine that, with such an intricate fountain system, people were watering the lush gardens by hand, but this may well be the case. We may never know because the original Crystal Palace is gone, destroyed by a fire in 1936.

Whether you’re working with a massive greenhouse or one in your backyard, contact the greenhouse irrigation specialists at W. P. Law, Inc. to find the watering system that will work best for your needs.

Two Irrigation Tools that Can Make Trouble-Shooting Your System Easy

Irrigation tools are only as effective as their users are knowledgeable.

Two Irrigation Tools that Can Make Trouble-Shooting Your System Easy

Two irrigation tools that every professional contractor needs in their arsenal is a quality volt/ohm meter and a wire/ground fault locator. Electrical control problems are second only to piping problems when it comes to troubleshooting an irrigation system. Bad solenoids, and skinned wires have caused more frustration when trying to solve an irrigation system control problem.

Here is a brief description of what these tools do and how they can benefit the user and save time.

1. Volt/Ohm meter. It is amazing how many contractors do not own this simple low-cost piece of equipment. A volt/ohm meter can be used to check the voltage output of a controller and to check the resistance of a solenoid. It can also be used to check continuity. The best part is you can get a decent volt/ohm meter for $30.00 to $50.00.

2. The second piece of equipment contractors should have access to, is a wire/ground fault locator. This piece of equipment is a lot more expensive with a price tag of $700-$800. Ground fault locators can be used to find nicked or broken wires. The wire locator function can be used to find solenoid valves. This is particularly helpful when trouble shooting a system that you did not install.

Check out our fine selection of irrigation tools. If you have questions, just contact us and we’ll help you find what you need.

3 Plastic Piping Systems and Their Industrial Applications

plastic piping

Industrial piping systems make the right connection.

Industrial plastic piping systems are ideal for handling highly corrosive fluids. These systems are often easier to install than comparable metal piping systems making them more cost effective.

Here are three commonly used thermoplastics that are used in various industrial plastic piping systems:

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) is the most commonly used thermoplastic piping material and accounts for over 85% of the footage of all thermoplastic piping. PVC has been successfully used in applications such as chemical processing, industrial plating, chilled water distribution, deionized water lines, chemical drainage, water distribution and irrigation. PVC possesses very good physical properties and chemical resistance to acids, alkalis, salt solutions, and many other chemicals. PVC should not be used with polar solvents such as ketones, some chlorinated hydrocarbons, and aromatics. The maximum service temperature for PVC is 140o F. PVC is joined by solvent cementing, threading, or flanging.

At 70o F, Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride (CPVC) has similar physical properties to PVC and its chemical resistance is similar to or generally better than that of PVC. CPVC has a maximum service temperature of 210o F and has proven to be an excellent material for handling hot corrosive liquids. CPVC is also used in hot and cold water service and similar applications above the temperature range of PVC. CPVC is joined by solvent cementing, threading, or flanging.

Polyethylene (PE) is the second most widely used thermoplastic piping material. PE is classified into three types. Type I PE has a low density, is relatively soft and flexible, and has low heat resistance. Type II PE has a medium density, is slightly harder, is more resistant to higher temperatures and has increased tensile strength. Type III PE is a higher density material offering maximum physical properties. Type III PE is also referred to as HDPE or high density polyethylene. Due to its toughness and superior physical properties, Type III PE is the preferred piping material. PE piping is most frequently used in gas and water distribution systems.

When it comes to selecting the proper industrial thermoplastic piping system for your application, the experts at W.P. Law, Inc. can help guide you to the right match for your project.


3 Common Questions about Sewage Lift Pump Stations

sewage lift pump station

Did you ever wonder how sewage lift pump stations work?

Water treatment and sewage lift pump stations are important parts of having a water system that is healthy and functional. There are many people who have challenging questions regarding these special applications and here are some of the most common.

1. What information should about my application should I collect before selecting a pump for my system?
Pumps are a highly engineered product and selecting the proper pump for an application requires some specific information. First of all it is important to understand what kind of liquid you will be pumping. Information such as Specific Gravity, percent solids, spherical diameter of these solids and the temperature of the fluid are all critical pieces of information. You will also need to know the position of the pump in relation to the fluid, the elevation from the pump to the discharge point, the flow rate requirement in gallons per minute (gpm) and the pressure requirement in pounds per square inch (psi). In addition to these items you will need to know what electrical power is available in terms of voltage and phase.

2. What is the difference between a centrifugal pump and a trash pump?
In reality they are both types of centrifugal pumps, however the trash style is created with a volute and an impeller that will allow the passage of large predetermined sized solids.

3. When sizing a pump is bigger always better?

The short answer in no. A pump that is oversized for an application will typically not operate at the pump’s best efficiency point (BEP). Not only does this lower efficiency consume more power, but operating a pump near the ends of the pump curve will shorten the life of the pump motor and could potentially cause the motor to burn up.

Like any industry there are a lot of questions you may find yourself asking and it is challenging to find a good solid resource who can properly help you. The experts at W.P. Law, Inc. can help. They have a team of knowledgeable staff that can guide you through any problem or question you have about sewage lift pump stations.


How Does It Work? Sewage Pump Stations Help Keep Our Water Supply Clean

sewage pump station

Sewage pump stations maintain a clean world.

You may not have thought about this before, but sewage pump stations are largely to be credited for your quality of life. One of the greatest parts about the world we live in today is the fact that we can have clean water.

The remarkable ingenuity that the generations of people before us have worked to establish has given us a world where we can live without fear of disease and other contaminants. But what does it take to get there? How is it that sewage pump stations work and mange to take some of the most disgusting water imaginable and turn it back into something clean and safe?

Sewage pump stations play an important role in achieving this amazing accomplishment. Water from these stations is pumped to treatment plants where it is cleaned and purified. The treatment of the water takes three processes.

1. First the solids and oils are removed from the water.
2. Next the water is moved to where all biological matter is removed.
3. Finally the water is disinfected.

Once the water has completed all of these the water is pumped back out into the natural places from where it originally came, such as lakes and rivers.

For more information about how sewage pump stations work visit the water treatment specialists at W.P. Law, Inc. who are available to answer your questions.


3 Ways Pump Stations Help Communities

pump station

Pump stations make the world go ‘round.

Pump stations are one of the major marvels of the modern world. While we take it for granted, the water system that we utilize and the treatment we can give to waste water is unprecedented in history. Our ability to ensure a relatively consistent level of clean and safe water is remarkable in comparison to past generations and less fortunate areas of the world.

Pump stations play an important part of this process. In addition to adding functionality and ease to our lives, the following are some of the main ways pump stations help communities.

1. Drinking water:
Without working pump stations our communities would not have clean water.

2. Living Conditions:
Pump stations help to keep our environment safe and clean. If it wasn’t for the wastewater being diverted away from homes, schools, businesses, and offices, our world would be a much different place than it is today.

3. Preventing Illness:
Right now you rarely have to worry about diseases that are typically associated with contaminated water, but without pump stations, you would be exposed to harmful substances.

During the separation period of the purification process water travels through the plant and is processed. When this occurs it is released back into natural water systems where it can benefit communities.

If you have further questions about pump stations let W.P. Law, Inc.’s trained and certified experts assist you with any of your pump station needs.


Understanding Irrigation System Parts

irrigation system parts

Irrigation system – putting all the pieces together.

An irrigation system is a valuable part of your landscape. Plants, flowers, and lawns need water to thrive; installing an automatic irrigation system will not only help keep your landscape looking great, but will add value to your property.

Understanding your irrigation system parts and what they do is an important part in installing and maintaining your irrigation system. To help you understand your irrigation system, here is a list of the major components and their function.

Irrigation Controller:
The irrigation controller is a programmable device that is connected to the control valves. The irrigation controller turns the valves on and off based on the programmed days and times.

Control valves:
The water in the irrigation system is regulated by the control valves. When the system is turned on either manually or automatically by the timer, the control valves allow water to move from the water source to the sprinkler heads.

PVC Piping:
PVC pipes are buried underground and provide the conduit for the water to flow through to the sprinkler heads.

Sprinkler Heads:
The sprinkler heads disperse the water to the lawn. There are several types of heads available depending on your particular needs.

For quality irrigation systems and supplies, visit the irrigation experts at W.P. Law, Inc.

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